Alternative Oxidase (AOX)

The alternative oxidase is an enzyme that forms part of the electron transport chain in plants, as well as some fungi, protists and possibly some animals.Sequences similar to the plant oxidase have also been identified in bacterial genomes.The oxidase provides an alternative route for electrons passing through the electron transport chain to reduce oxygen. However, as several proton-pumping steps are bypassed in this alternative pathway, activation of the oxidase reduces ATP generation. This enzyme was first identified as a distinct oxidase pathway from cytochrome c oxidase as the alternative oxidase is resistant to inhibition by the poison cyanide.The enzyme has been predicted to contain a coupled diiron center on the basis of a conserved sequence motif consisting of the proposed iron ligands, four glutamine and two histidine amino acid residues.

Organism species: Spinacia oleracea (Spinach)

Proteins n/a Recombinant Alternative Oxidase (AOX) Recombinant Protein Customized Service Offer
Antibodies n/a Monoclonal Antibody to Alternative Oxidase (AOX) Monoclonal Antibody Customized Service Offer
n/a Polyclonal Antibody to Alternative Oxidase (AOX) Polyclonal Antibody Customized Service Offer
Assay Kits n/a CLIA Kit for Alternative Oxidase (AOX) CLIA Kit Customized Service Offer
n/a ELISA Kit for Alternative Oxidase (AOX) ELISA Kit Customized Service Offer
  1. "Characterization of the gene family for alternative oxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana."Plant Mol. Biol. 35:585-596(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  2. "Identification of new early markers of the hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis thaliana."FEBS Lett. 459:149-153(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  3. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 3. I. Sequence features of the regions of 4,504,864 bp covered by sixty P1 and TAC clones."DNA Res. 7:131-135(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  4. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome." Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  5. "Arabidopsis alternative oxidase sustains Escherichia coli respiration."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89:10842-10846(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  6. "The active site of the cyanide-resistant oxidase from plant mitochondria contains a binuclear iron center."FEBS Lett. 362:10-14(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  7. "Isolation of mutants of the Arabidopsis thaliana alternative oxidase (ubiquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase) resistant to salicylhydroxamic acid."Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1364:73-83(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  8. "Regulation of the cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria. Identification of the cysteine residue involved in alpha-keto acid stimulation and intersubunit disulfide bond formation."J. Biol. Chem. 273:30750-30756(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  9. "A revised model of the active site of alternative oxidase."FEBS Lett. 449:17-22(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  10. "A single amino acid change in the plant alternative oxidase alters the specificity of organic acid activation."FEBS Lett. 454:220-224(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  11. "New insight into the structure and function of the alternative oxidase."Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1460:241-254(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  12. "The gene for alternative oxidase-2 (AOX2) from Arabidopsis thaliana consists of five exons unlike other AOX genes and is transcribed at an early stage during germination."Genes Genet. Syst. 76:89-97(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  13. "Activation of the plant mitochondrial alternative oxidase: insights from site-directed mutagenesis."Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1554:118-128(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  14. "EPR studies of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase. Evidence for a diiron carboxylate center."J. Biol. Chem. 277:43608-43614(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  15. "Experimental analysis of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial proteome highlights signaling and regulatory components, provides assessment of targeting prediction programs, and indicates plant-specific mitochondrial proteins."Plant Cell 16:241-256(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  16. "Stress-induced co-expression of alternative respiratory chain components in Arabidopsis thaliana."Plant Mol. Biol. 58:193-212(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  17. "The alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria is involved in the acclimation of shoot growth at low temperature. A study of Arabidopsis AOX1a transgenic plants."Plant Physiol. 139:1795-1805(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  18. "Alternative oxidases in Arabidopsis: a comparative analysis of differential expression in the gene family provides new insights into function of non-phosphorylating bypasses."Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1757:730-741(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  19. "Characterization of mitochondrial alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis: intraorganelle location and expression."Plant Cell Physiol. 47:43-54(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  20. "Alternative oxidase involvement in cold stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana fad2 and FAD3+ cell suspensions altered in membrane lipid composition."Plant Cell Physiol. 48:856-865(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  21. "Induction of the AOX1D isoform of alternative oxidase in A. thaliana T-DNA insertion lines lacking isoform AOX1A is insufficient to optimize photosynthesis when treated with antimycin A."Mol. Plant 2:284-297(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  22. "Differential gene expression profiles of the mitochondrial respiratory components in illuminated Arabidopsis leaves."Plant Cell Physiol. 50:1449-1462(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  23. "Effects of AOX1a deficiency on plant growth, gene expression of respiratory components and metabolic profile under low-nitrogen stress in Arabidopsis thaliana."Plant Cell Physiol. 51:810-822(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  24. "Involvement of ethylene and hydrogen peroxide in induction of alternative respiratory pathway in salt-treated Arabidopsis calluses."Plant Cell Physiol. 51:1754-1765(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  25. "Physiological impact of mitochondrial alternative oxidase on photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana."Plant Cell Environ. 34:1890-1899(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  26. "Involvement of hydrogen peroxide, calcium, and ethylene in the induction of the alternative pathway in chilling-stressed Arabidopsis callus."Planta 235:53-67(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  27. "The absence of alternative oxidase AOX1A results in altered response of photosynthetic carbon assimilation to increasing CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana."Plant Cell Physiol. 53:1627-1637(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]